Monthly Archives: October 2015

How To Configure Private Directories With Apache

Password Login

By default Apache will serve content out to anyone that requests it which essentially makes it public. We can add some additional simple configuration to create a private directory that can only be accessed based on source IP address, or with a username and password combination, or even based on user group membership.

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How To Perform Simple SQL Queries Against a Database


This quick guide will show you how to perform very simple SQL queries against a MariaDB/MySQL database as per the RHCE exam objective and is not designed to be an in depth SQL tutorial.

Here we will cover using basic SQL queries such as show, create, select, insert, update, delete, describe, and drop which will allow us to define a basic database schema.

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How To Create Static Routes to Route IP Traffic

Static Route

By default all network traffic will normally be configured to route via the default gateway, that is the router attached to the network interface. It may not always be the case that you want all traffic to take the same path, in these instances we can set additional static routes that will forward specific traffic out of a different interface rather than the default gateway. This may be required if you need to be able to reach a particular network that your default gateway router does not know about.

Here we’re going to cover how to configure a static route in Linux.
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How To Provide NFS Network Shares to Specific Clients

NFS share for specific clients

With NFS we can export specific directories within a file system over the network to other clients allowing us to share various files over the network. It is important to configure this properly and secure it as much as possible so that only the required clients have access to the NFS share, otherwise it may be possible for anyone to mount it and access the data.

To do this we are going to use the /etc/exports file on the NFS server and lock down shares to only be accessible by specific IP addresses.
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Configure Postfix to Forward Mail to a Central Relay Server

Email Relay

Rather than having individual Linux systems in your network sending mail out directly to the Internet, we can instead configure them to forward mail to a central mail relay server. Such systems are known as null clients, and these do not accept local delivery of any messages, they only forward mail out to a relay server.

This has various benefits, such as centralizing mail logs onto one server and only requiring the firewall to allow outbound port 25 for SMTP on one server rather than allowing all servers to connect out to the Internet on port 25. This means that the mail relay server can sit inside your DMZ network to send mail out while access remains locked down to the rest of your internal network.

Here we are going to cover how to configure a null client by using Postfix to forward mail to a central relay server that exists in our local network. Read more »

How To Configure TLS Security in Apache


By default Apache will serve web content out over the wire in the clear via HTTP which is insecure. We can increase the security between clients and the web server by using HTTPS. This will encrypt the data transferred between the two and is done by configuring TLS.

Here we will add HTTPS support for our test domain, which we previously configured in our virtual host configuration guide.
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Is an Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) Worth It?


Recently in my area there have been some power outages and I have seen people complaining about not being able to use the computer or Internet during this time. When I advise investing in an Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS) they tend to have a few questions about whether or not purchasing a UPS to use in their home is worth it or not, let’s take a look.

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How To Configure an Apache Virtual Host

Virtual Host Diagram

In Apache (httpd) virtual hosts are used to host web content for multiple domains off of the same server depending on the IP address or domain name that is being used. Depending on the request received different virtual host configuration can apply, resulting in different settings and web content being served from a single web server. For example a web server with one IP address can host multiple domain names such as and and many more.

Here we are going to cover how to configure virtual hosts for Apache 2.4 so that we can have multiple domains serving different websites based on what is requested.

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How To Change Hostname In Linux


In Linux you may want to change the hostname of your server or desktop PC from time to time. A common example is if you’re re-purposing a server or you made a typo when installing the operating system and want to reset the hostname.

Here we will cover how the hostname can be edited in Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL)/CentOS and Debian flavors of Linux, the process generally differs slightly depending on the distribution of Linux in use.

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